Thermodynamics

 

 42) ΔH° = -19.5 kJ           ΔS° = 42.7 J/K          T = 298 K

 

       (a) The reaction is exothermic (the enthalpy of the products is less than the enthalpy of the reactants) because ΔH° < 0.

                

       (b) The entropy (the disorder of the system) increases because ΔS° > 0.

           

       (c) ΔG° = ΔH° - TΔS°

            ΔG° = -19.5 kJ - 298 K x 42.7 J/K x 1 kJ/103 J = -32.2 kJ

 

       (d) The reaction is spontaneous (occurs without any outside intervention) because the reactants and products are present in their standard states and ΔG° < 0.